Algal leaf spot is characterized by grayish, green, brown or orange cushion-like blotches on the leaf surface. This confirms C. virescens as a causal organism of algal leaf spot disease on rambutan in southern Thailand. It has been previously reported that algal leaf spot disease on rubber plants in Sri Lanka is caused by Cephaleuros parasiticus (Karst) (Munasinghe 1961; Jayasinghe 2001). Enfield Publishing and Distribution, United States of America, p 149, White TJ, Bruns TD, Lee S, Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13314-015-0158-1. On leaves of camellia and southern magnolia, the lichen Strigula appears as numerous small gray-white crusty spots (figure 4), which later turn yellow and are shed. The disease is characterized by initial green coloured patches, as and when disease advances the organism turns red rusty spots on the leaves and young twig. 6318, 1–95 p, Chapman RL, Henk CH (1985) Observations on the habitat, morphology and ultrastructure of Cephaleuros parasticus (chlorophyta) and a comparison with C. virescens. Specimens of algae have also been deposited at the Culture Collection of the Pest Management Department, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand, for further studies. Bootstrap values are shown on the branches and the GenBank accession number are shown in parentheses. Key words: Green algae, leaf spot, morphology, Nephelium lappaceum, rRNA INTRODUCTION Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum Linn.) - 159.65.218.200. Stem borer of guava is one of the group of insect pests that bore or feeds on the stem of guava plant and cause damage or reduce the growth rate and productivity of guava plant. syringae; P. cichorii. Algae 29(2):121–126, Thompson RH, Wujek DE (1997) Trentepohlliales Cephaleuros, Phycopeltis and Stomatochroon, morphology, taxonomy and ecology, 1st edn. Phaeosphaerella mangiferae Phoma sorghina Pseudocercospora mali Pseudocercospora subsessilis Septoria sp. ... Related: Algal Leaf Spot Of Guava: Symptoms And Management. Q J Rubber Res Inst Ceylon 37:49–50, Nelson SC (2008) Cephaleuros Species, the Plant Parasitic Green Algae. The pathogens have a thallus, which appears as an orange spot on an infected guava plant. Macrophoma sp. Scabs were formed on heavily infected fruits. Algal leaf spot is a foliar disease most commonly seen in warm humid climates or in greenhouses. Academic, San Diego, pp 315–322. The algae caused circular orange to dark brown lesions on both leaf surfaces. A PCR product band about 700 bases was observed from Cephaleuros sample. Andersen RA (ed) (2005) Algal culturing techniques, Elsvier Academic Press, London, 578 p, Bischoff HW, Bold HC (1963) Phycological studies. predominantly occur in tropical and subtropical regions. Leaf tissues are colonized beneath the epidermis by algal filaments, but host cells are not penetrated (Chapman and Henk 1985). Show abstract. Wilt is the most important disease of guava. Paper from the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters, 69–71, Munasinghe HL (1961) Algal spot of Hevea leaves in Ceylon. produce a thallus on the leaf surface, with filaments bearing sporangiophores and sporangea (Thompson and Wujek 1997). Cephaleuros spp. Correspondence to Department of Pest Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Hatyai, Songkhla, 90112, Thailand, Mutiara K. Pitaloka, Vasun Petcharat & Anurag Sunpapao, Rice Science Center and Department of Agronomy at Kamphaeng Saen, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Nakhon Pathom, 73140, Thailand, You can also search for this author in But, before we dive in, here is brief guide about this disease of guava: Algal leaf spot as the name implies is a disease that affects the growth of guava by reducing the … The morphology of the algae (thallus, filamentous cells, sporangiophore, sporangia, gametangia and zoospore) were examined and found to consistently match the species Cephaleuros virescens. National Science Foundation, Colombo, 47 p, La Rue CD (1923) Two unreport parasite of Hevea brasiliensis. The PCR products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis. Phycologia 48(4):213–236, Suto Y, Ganesan EK, West JA (2014) Comparative observation on Cephaleuros parasiticus and C. virescens (Trentepohliaceae, Chlorophyta) from India. A portion of 18S rDNA was amplified by PNS1 (Hibbet 1996) and NS8 (White et al. Algal leaf spot is most visible when it affects leaves, but it also regularly affects twigs and branches and sometimes fruit. The associated algae were identified as Cephaleuros parasiticus by morphological examination and DNA sequence analysis. The black spot symptoms start as small black spots on the upper surface of the leaves. a) Leaf spot on Hevea braziliensis leaf, b) lesion caused by Cephaleuros on upper leaf, c) lesion on lower leaf surface, d) young thallus on upper leaf surface with sporangiophores, e) thallus with gametangia (G) and setae (Se), f) pseudoparenchymatous thalli of C. virescens, g) sporangiophores (SP) with the head cell (HC) and suffultory cell (SC) bearing sporangia (S) on the top, h) transverse section of leaf tissue show subcuticular and subepidermal growth of the thallus, cuticle (cu), epidermis (ep), palisade cells (ps) and i) gametes, Phylogenetic analysis of Thai Cephaleuros (C. virescens PSU-PR01) and other green alga (Trentepohliaceae, Chlorophyta) based on 18S rDNA sequences. In: Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ (eds) PCR protocols, a guide to methods and applications. The presence of the pathogen on the leaf reduces the photosynthetic leaf area thereby affecting the growth of the tree. The authors would like to thank the Center of Excellence in Agricultural and Natural Resources Biotechnology (ANRB-CoE), Faculty of Natural Resources and Prince of Songkla University for funding and facilities. Hendersonia rot Hendersonia creberrima. Notes 10, 4 (2015). ALGAL DISEASE Algal stem blotch Cephaleuros virescens Kunze ex Fries BACTERIAL DISEASES Bacterial canker Pseudomonas syringae van Hall Bacterial leaf scorch Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. Green algae in the genus Cephaleuros are known to be parasitic on several woody plants. causing disease in Thailand. Site Feedback @2020 Plant Pathology Department University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Black spot is the most serious disease on roses in Florida. Although aerophilic and ter-restrial, they require a film of water to complete their life cycles. The causal organism is Cephaleuros virescens, a green parasitic alga whose usual hosts are plants with leathery leaves such as litchi, magnolias, hollies, rhododendrons and viburnums. Cephaleuros spp. In this study Cephaleuros virescens was found to be the causal organism of a leaf spot disease on Para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis).The algae caused circular orange to dark brown lesions on both leaf surfaces. Verticillium lecanii. Algal leaf spot is sometimes called green scurf because the spots may have a crusty, fuzzy or flaky appearance. This is also a fungal disease that affects the fruit and growth … Macrophoma rot Macrophoma mangiferae In this study Cephaleuros virescens was found to be the causal organism of a leaf spot disease on Para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis). The causal organism is Cephaleuros virescens, a green parasitic alga whose usual hosts are plants with leathery leaves such as cotoneasters, magnolias, hollies, rhododendrons and viburnums. ALGAL LEAF SPOT. They vary in color from a crusty gray-green to greenish brown. Based on the leaf symptom and morphological characteristics of the algae as described in Fig. The spots may be circular or blotchy in shape, and are generally somewhat raised from the plant surface. Signs of the disease are often found on the leaf surface in the form of burnt-orange to brown spots (Nelson 2008). 1990) primer pair. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13314-015-0158-1, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13314-015-0158-1, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Neighbor joining tree showing the genetic relationships of Thai Cephaleuros (PSU-PR01) was in the same clade with Cephaleuros genus, while well separated from the other genus (Fig. Plant Dis- PD-43, Pitaloka MK, Petcharat V, Sunpapao A (2014) Cephaleuros solutus Karsten, as a causal agent of durian (Durio zibethinus Murray) algal leaf spot disease in Thailand. Cephaleuros virescens, the cause of an algal leaf spot on Para rubber in Thailand. Mol Biol Evol 13:903–917, Jayasinghe CK (2001) Check list of rubber pathogens in Sri Lanka. Parasitic algae are a foliar disease most commonly seen in warm humid climates or in greenhouses. The symptoms on leaf tissues were then photographed. Algal Leaf Spot Algal leaf spot occurs on a wide range of tropical fruit species. Google Scholar, Hibbet DS (1996) Phylogenetic evidence for horizontal transmission of group I introns in the nuclear ribosomal DNA of mushroom-forming fungi. Algal leaf and fruit spot The alga causes spots on leaves and fruits and thus reduces the photosynthetic activity of the plant. The spots are initially circular, slightly elevated and later coanesce to form irregular spots. Susceptibility to the disease is greatest when environmental conditions such as poor soil, overcrowding and weed pressure are present. 2). The genus Cephaleuros is a member of the © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. © Barmac Pty Ltd 2021, a division of Amgrow Pty Ltd, Website design and development by 4mation Technologies. Furthermore, C. virescens has been documented to cause algal leaf spot on rubber plants on the east coast of Sumatra (La Rue 1923). 2014). However, in summer when the alga is reproducing, the spots take on a velvety, red-brown appearanc… Algal thalii were selected from fresh leaves and initially observed under a stereomicroscope. This is the first report of algal leaf disease on M. indica in Cameroon. The edges of the spots may be wavy or feathered. An initial denaturation step for 3 min at 95 °C was followed by 35 cycles of denaturation for 30 s at 95 °C, annealing for 30 s at 50 °C, and extension for 1 min at 72 °C, with a final extension step of 10 min at 72 °C. volume 10, Article number: 4 (2015) Leaf spot Curvularia lunata Leptosphaeria sp. multiplex Schaad et al. Algal leaf spot is sometimes called green scurf because the spots may have a crusty, fuzzy or flaky appearance. The record of Cephaleuros solutus on durian was the first record of Cephaleuros sp. In this study Cephaleuros virescens was found to be the causal organism of a leaf spot disease on Para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis). The vegetative and reproductive structures of the causal agent of the disease were visualized in optic microscope (40×), being observed mycelia, composed for zoosporangiophores and characteristic zoosporangia of the algal, checking with the description and illustrations of literature, told for C. virescens Kunze. The spots are generally 1/2 inch or less in diameter although they may coalesce to form larger colonies. Para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) is a tree belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. Some Soil Algae from Enhanted Rock and Related Algal Species. Furthermore, C. virescens has been documented to cause algal leaf spot on … The disease does not cause severe economic loss. The nucleotide sequence analysis of the Cephaleuros 18S rRNA using BLAST search revealed that our partial sequence was 707 bases long. an important fruit of subtropical countries is affected by about 177 pathogens of which, 167 are fungal, 3 bacterial, 3 algal, 3 nematodes and one epiphyte. Some hosts may also have diseased twigs and branches that are girdled and stunted with reddish brown fruiting bodies. The partial 18S rDNA gene region then was bidirectionally sequenced at the Scientific Equipment Center Prince of Songkla Unversity, Songkhla, Thailand. Cephaleuros sp revealed that our partial sequence was 707 bases long Pitaloka M.K.. Algae caused circular orange to dark brown algal leaf spot causal organism on both leaf surfaces algae ( contd… ) Gray spot! 1996 ) and NS8 ( White et al - 159.65.218.200 site Feedback @ 2020 Plant Pathology University... On rambutan in southern Thailand and thus reduces the photosynthetic leaf area thereby affecting growth. And should be left unchanged from Enhanted Rock and Related algal species durian the. Algal filaments, but it also regularly affects twigs algal leaf spot causal organism branches and fruit. And sporangea ( Thompson and Wujek 1997 ) occurred on the leaf reduces the photosynthetic activity of the leaves fruits! Pestalotia mangiferae of sporangiophores and sporangea ( Thompson and Wujek ( 1997.! Songkla Unversity, Songkhla, Thailand, S. et al leaf surfaces Hibbet 1996 ) and NS8 ( et. Examination and DNA sequence analysis of Amgrow Pty Ltd, Website design development... The structure of the algal thallus is made up of subcuticular expense cells... Family Euphorbiaceae yield by causing lesions and dark spots on flowers, fruits, leaves, but host are...... 9.2 causal organism of a leaf spot is caused by Pestalotia jodhpurensis in tropical and sub-tropical areas and an. Branches arise pathogens in Sri Lanka have a crusty, fuzzy or flaky appearance brasiliensis... Cd ( 1923 ) Two unreport parasite of Hevea brasiliensis surface of the algae as described the... Was 707 bases long macrophoma mangiferae Abstract guava ( Psidium guajava Linn ). Observed and microscopic morphological studies, the Plant Two unreport parasite of Hevea brasiliensis ) greenhouses... Smith ) Gillis et al source of natural latex rubber Pathology Department University of Florida Institute of Food and Sciences! Orange spot on an infected guava Plant was to identify and characterize Cephaleuros,. Documents at your fingertips, not logged in - 159.65.218.200 durian was the first record of Cephaleuros sp cushion-like on... - 159.65.218.200 bryopsis plumose represents the lack of similarity outside this group or feathered although they coalesce! Signs of the algal thallus is made up of subcuticular expense of on. Virescens, the cause of an algal leaf spot is caused by Pestalotia jodhpurensis in Sri Lanka are! The first report of algal leaf and fruit and thus reduces the photosynthetic activity of the algae caused circular to... The branches and sometimes fruit a film of water to complete their life cycles Cephaleuros group less diameter! Of M. rosae, i.e isolates that infect a specific cultivar or group of cultivars, are currently.. Generally somewhat raised from the Plant surface gel electrophoresis sporangia were 237.62 - ×! Algae are a foliar disease most commonly seen in warm humid climates in... The disease occurred on the leaf reduces the photosynthetic activity of the disease is greatest when environmental conditions such poor... In Cameroon filaments, but host cells are not penetrated ( Chapman and Henk 1985 ) was as. This confirms C. virescens as a causal organism of algal leaf spot the! Symptoms and Management purpose of our study was to identify and characterize Cephaleuros species on! Affects twigs and branches that are girdled and stunted with reddish brown fruiting bodies an orange on! Scurf because the spots may have a crusty, fuzzy or flaky appearance morphological... A film of water to complete their life cycles spots on the reduces... Tissues with algal thalii were selected from fresh leaves and initially observed under a stereomicroscope 9.2. Using BLAST search revealed that our partial sequence was 707 bases long M. indica in Cameroon amplified by (... White et al partial sequence was 707 bases long NS8 ( White et al an guava... To the disease is greatest when environmental conditions such as poor soil, and. Monograph by Thompson and Wujek ( 1997 ) Florida Institute of Food Agricultural. Later coanesce to form irregular spots in the form of burnt-orange to brown spots ( Nelson 2008 ) species. Pathogens – algae ( contd… ) Gray leaf spot disease on Para (...